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經濟學人下載:電子支付(3)

Source: Economist    2019-08-09  我要投稿   論壇   Favorite  

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These problems have three remedies. First, governments need to ensure that central banks’ monopoly over coins and notes is not replaced by private monopolies over digital money. Rather than letting a few credit-card firms have a stranglehold on the electronic pipes for digital payments, as America may yet allow, governments must ensure the payments plumbing is open to a range of digital firms which can build services on top of it. They should urge banks to offer cheap, instant, bank-to-bank digital transfers between deposit accounts, as in Sweden and the Netherlands. Competition should keep prices low so that the poor can afford most services, and it should also mean that if one firm stumbles others can step in, making the system resilient.
這些問題有三個補救措施。首先,政府需要確保央行對硬幣和紙幣的壟斷不會被私人對數字貨幣的壟斷所取代。政府必須確保支付通道向一系列數字公司開放,而不是像美國可能允許的那樣,讓少數信用卡公司牢牢控制數字支付的電子通道。政府應該敦促銀行像瑞典和荷蘭那樣,在存款賬戶之間提供費用低、即時的銀行間數字轉賬服務。競爭應該使價格保持在低水平,這樣窮人就能負擔得起大部分的服務,這也應該意味著,如果一家公司遇到困難,其他公司也可以介入,使這個系統具有彈性。

Second, governments should maintain banks’ obligation to keep customer information private, so that the plumbing remains anonymous. Digital firms that use this plumbing to offer services should be free to monetise transaction data, through, for example, advertising, so long as their business model is made explicit to users. Some customers will favour free services that track their purchases; others will want to pay to be left alone.
其次,政府應該保持銀行對客戶信息保密的義務,這樣銀行的信息管道才能保持匿名。使用這種管道來提供服務的數字公司應該可以通過廣告等方式自由地將交易數據貨幣化,只要他們的商業模式對用戶明確。一些顧客會傾向于使用免費的服務來跟蹤他們的購買行爲;另一些人會想要付出代價讓自己獨處。

Last, the phase-out of cash should be gradual. For a period of ten years, banks should be obliged to accept and distribute cash in populated areas. This will buy governments time to help the poor open bank accounts, educate the elderly and beef up internet access in rural areas. The rush towards digital money is the result of spontaneous demand and innovation. To pocket all the rewards, governments need to prepare for the day when crumpled bank notes change hands for the last time.
最後,現金應逐步淘汰。在十年的時間裏,銀行有義務在人口密集的地區接受和發放現金。這將爲政府爭取時間,幫助貧困人口開設銀行賬戶,教老年人使用,並加強農村地區的互聯網接入。對數字貨幣的狂熱是自發需求和創新的結果。爲了把所有的獎勵都裝進口袋,各國政府需要做好准備,迎接皺巴巴的鈔票最後一次易手的那一天。


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